Stereotypes of Arabs in Zelda: Ocarina of Time: A journey, via Disney’s Aladdin and The Arabian Nights.
In a previous post I briefly (ha) discussed Zelda: Ocarina of Time’s Fire Temple music and the so-called controversy surrounding its original music, which resembles Muslim prayer. I wanted to return to the subject, sort of, but this time to talk about the issue of race in the game. Part of the reason for coming back to it now is because I read a thoroughly stupid and ridiculous article posted at Salon.com about a month ago on this topic. I refuse to link to it here as a matter of principle because it is unadulterated click-baiting dirge. Seek it out if you dare – the article is titled ‘”The Legend of Zelda” is Classist, Sexist and Racist’. I warn you now that as well as “uncovering” the “hidden” classism, sexism and racism it also “reveals” the “truth” about Ocarina of Time’s “anti-animal” agenda. Pure bollocks. You have been warned. Still, it’s made me want to come back to the matter of race in Ocarina of Time, only partly because the Salon article handles the issue about as deftly as a small parakeet might handle the job of a school bus driver, which is to say not altogether well.
Let me just say quickly as a disclaimer that all of these points that follow are all based on subtext. Certainly they don’t in any sense (for me at least) ruin or spoil the game. And I refuse to do what the Salon article does, which is throw out these controversial words – racist, sexist, classist – seemingly at random. It’s not helpful as far as discussion goes, since it unfairly implies that if you enjoy Ocarina of Time it makes you, the player racist, sexist and so on, which is just stupid. Also, as much as I am being critical of Ocarina of Time here, clearly I recognise that there is a need for the story to have a good guy and a bad guy. Ultimately my feeling is that the makers probably drew on stereotypes that are in some sense unavoidable when trying to create this kind of story, a quest narrative of good versus evil. I’m just interested in the ways certain tropes of evil tend to be circulated and reused over others, and in this case I’m talking about how evil is associated with race.
During my most recent playthrough of Ocarina of Time I registered much more clearly the racialised features of the game’s own fantasy “races”. Many of these stereotypical features are on the surface, and are easily identifiable, even to myself as a child playing the game for the first time. The connections between Gorons and Africa are clear for example: besides the obvious dark skin, the Goron chief, Darunia – unique as a tribal chief among the kings of Hyrule – is fixated on music and dancing, with emphasis on the drum beat, and he also initiates Link by becoming his “brother”. The Gorons are really interesting to think about, but for length reasons here I’m going to discuss just the Gerudos.
Another reason for leaving the Gorons out of the discussion is that the Gerudos are the most villainous race in the game. Evil as many of them are, there are good Gerudos like Nabooru, who turns out to be the Spirit Sage. In Ocarina of Time, where Link’s task is to assist and ultimately unite all of Hyrule’s many races and clans, how and why are the Gerudos singled out as the most resistant and therefore most complex group of all?
In order to unpick the stereotypes around Arabs present in Ocarina of Time we need to take a look back at some of the sources for the stereotypes. I do not know and won’t speculate about Japan’s history in all of this, but it certainly seems like the representation of Arabs in Ocarina of Time has come from images of Arabs that have been filtered through a European lens, so to speak. Although there were many tropes about Arabs and Islam circulated in Europe prior to the 1700s, the Arab world became extremely fashionable with the publication in France and England of 1001 Nights, or as it’s more commonly known, The Arabian Nights.
(Incidentally, the common title is mostly misleading, given that the stories come from a mixture of Arab and non-Arab sources – portions of the text are believed to be from Persia originally for instance. Furthermore, the most famous stories such as the tales of Aladdin and Ali Baba were commissioned by the original French translator Galland. It’s rumoured that these stories were produced by a Syrian storyteller but no one knows with any certainty – Galland may have written them himself.)
Regardless of the sources, The Arabian Nights became a huge publishing phenomenon in Europe. The fantastical stories of genies and magic carpets, cheating wives and bloodthirsty tyrants in the Middle East had an immediate impact on the European imagination – despite the fact that in the Middle East the same text seems to have been relatively obscure. As enjoyable as the text is, there has always been something dodgy about its reception in Europe. Specifically, the book was always read as if it were somehow realistic, or a guidebook to the Middle East. So Sir Richard Burton, one of the early translators wrote in his preface of The Arabian Nights’ great ‘anthropological and ethnographical interest and importance’.
Another telling example is Lady Mary Montagu, an Englishwoman who traveled to Turkey with her diplomat husband. In her famous collection of letters, published in 1762, she wrote in a letter to her sister:
This is but too like (says you) the Arabian tales; these embroidered Napkins, and a jewel as large as a Turkey’s egg! – You forget, dear Sister, those very tales were writ by an Author of this Country and (excepting the Enchantments) are a real representation of the manners here.
The “Country” she refers to here is not in fact Turkey, which as far as I know has nothing to do with The Arabian Nights. Instead Lady Montagu means the East, or perhaps more specifically the Near East. The riches of the East, the harems, the Muslim veils, the random violence, the cruel tyrants (and their many wives), the strict laws and cruel punishments, the religion, all of these are described and thoroughly romanticised by Lady Montagu in her letters. The only thing Lady Montagu leaves out is the desert, for obvious reasons perhaps given she was in Turkey. As her letters show, she sees the fiction of The Arabian Nights and the reality of Turkey, or in her eyes the Near East, as essentially identical. As such, the people she meets in Turkey do not seem real to her. Everything they do or say, everything she sees, is strange, petty, and removed from her, even while at the same time she finds it all completely fascinating. There are a whole batch of stereotypes from around this period that make up what I’ve been calling the European lens of the Middle East. The stereotypes that help make up that lens are not just innocent or meaningless, but they have informed European views on the real Middle East since the time they were first circulated, and many of them are still present in our culture and society.
Now let’s skip forward a few centuries to a modern film which taps into all of the same cliches around the Middle East, just to prove the point. This is Disney’s Aladdin, of course. I don’t want to bore anyone with a lengthy analysis, there are just a few points to make here, all of which relate to Zelda. There are plenty more detailed attempts out there on Aladdin – Google is your friend.
Here we go: Aladdin dips into the same well of cliches as Ocarina of Time, although if Ocarina of Time is dipping its toes in, Aladdin stripped off its clothes and dive-bombed in before delivering a floater. Aladdin is also doubly contentious given its an American film released in the aftermath of the first Gulf War in 1992. Now don’t get me wrong, it’s a good film, but they really took the biscuit in a way that later Disney films didn’t – Mulan and Pocahontas are much more sympathetic to the cultures represented. For starts, in Aladdin, the heroine Princess Jasmine dresses like a belly dancer, and not like something more suitable, such as, oh I don’t know, how about a princess. And I thought this was supposed to be a kids film??
The villain, Jafar, is darker skinned than the pale good guys, and he has a large, hooked nose. He speaks without an American accent, also unlike the heroes of the tale. The Middle Eastern society in the film is shown to be broken, filled with arbitrary and cruel laws that make Aladdin a poor beggar, barely able to survive. Finally, at one point when Aladdin encounters a demonic monster trying to kill him, the monster recites lines from the English translation of the Qur’an. Kids film, anyone? I could go on but that’s enough, you get the picture and a right shady one at that.
Aladdin’s all well and good but what does this have to do with Ocarina of Time then? There are a number of comparisons. First let’s properly introduce the Gerudos. Gerudos appear in both Ocarina of Time and Majora’s Mask. Of course, Ganondorf, the big baddie from Ocarina of Time is a Gerudo. He is in fact the only Gerudo male – all the rest are female due to…well I don’t know. Genetics perhaps. They’re described as thieves in Ocarina of Time, and in Majora’s Mask they become sea-faring pirates. The women wear face veils, and like Princess Jasmine in Aladdin they dress like belly dancers. Again, why are they sexualised in this way? (Don’t mention the Great Fairies!!!) All Gerudos, men and women, have large noses and dark skin, although not as dark as the Gorons. They live in the desert.
In case it wasn’t obvious enough from this scant info that the Gerudos represent Arabs, this juicy tidbit from one of the Gossip Stones in the game should dismiss any lingering uncertainty (it certainly did for me):
They say that the horse Ganondorf rides is a solid black Gerudo stallion.
Given the reputation Arabian horses have for being the strongest and fastest horses in the world, it doesn’t take a genius to make the connection with Ganondorf’s “Gerudo stallion”.
More on Ganondorf, from a speech by Nabooru, the Spirit Sage:
A kid like you may not know this, but the Gerudo race consists only of women. Only one man is born every hundred years… Even though our laws say that lone male Gerudo must become King of the Gerudo, I’ll never bow to such an evil man!
Firstly, Nabooru implies that Ganondorf is abusing his position as the ruler of the Gerudos, leading his people morally astray. The rules are seemingly sexist and arbitrary, since the man is king automatically, regardless of his personality or temperament (by contrast, the game doesn’t question how or why the kings and chiefs of Hyrule are rulers). Second, although Ocarina of Time is pretty clean in the way of sexual matters, the idea of the lone male Gerudo ruling over a group of women conjures up the imagery of the Arabian Nights: a decadent polygamous marriage, a Middle Eastern sultan and many scantily-clad wives doing his bidding in his protective fortress, the harem. Outsiders can only watch in voyeuristic fashion and imagine what goes on inside the harem. A mandatory section in Majora’s Mask nods to this idea, when Link is asked to take a photo of a Gerudo woman for a pervy shopkeeper in exchange for an item.
The Gerudo society is profoundly immoral. The Gerudos respect traits of power and strength, with little or no regard for morality. As one Gerudo woman tells Link:
I’ve seen your fine work. To get past the guards here, you must have good thieving skills. I used to think that all men, besides the great Ganondorf, were useless…but now that I’ve seen you, I don’t think so anymore!
By displaying his own strength Link is able to impress the Gerudo women, to the point where Nabooru lends Link her own power. But even Nabooru, the “good” Arab, is still no better than a thief.
First of all, let me introduce myself. I’m Nabooru of the Gerudo. I’m a lone wolf thief. But don’t get me wrong! Though we’re both thieves, I’m completely different from Ganondorf.
Tied up in all of this is the menacing spectre of Islam, which lurks in the background. The flag of the Gerudos, which shows a moon crescent and a star is a direct reference to one of the most common symbols of Islam. Islam in the European imagination has always called to mind fears of a possible invasion of Europe, and its subjugation to Muslim rule. Hence in a slightly eerie fashion the Gossip Stones warn of the danger posed by Ganondorf.
They say that Ganondorf is not satisfied with ruling only the Gerudo and aims to conquer all of Hyrule!
There is also the danger of Ganondorf’s followers for their zealous devotion.
They say that Gerudos worship Ganondorf almost like a god.
Here the reference to worship calls to mind Muslims, who presumably are also obsessed with power and are zealously plotting to conquer the world. Another odd stereotype that has been around for donkeys years that appears here is the damning depiction of Islam as a uniquely Arab/Middle Eastern religion. Aside from conveniently ignoring that Islam is practiced far beyond the Middle East, this stereotype perpetuated by European Christians also seemingly forgets the Middle Eastern origins of Christianity and Judaism.
Finally, I think it is also interesting that as the only Gerudo who opposes Ganondorf and sides with Link, Nabooru is one of the few Gerudos who do not wear a face veil. The real life equivalents such as the hijab and the niqab, are frequently seen by European eyes as a Muslim woman’s unpleasant, slave-like devotion to God – either that or they’re forced by their bearded husbands. Nuns on the other hand don’t seem to have the same image problem despite similar coverings. Here in the UK it is sometimes seen as a sign that Muslims don’t want to “mix” or “integrate”.
So what about Link in all this? Link is the saviour right, a force for good? You might say that. He’s also the white-skinned, blonde-haired, blue-eyed world police, trying to save the brown women from the brown man. With all of the other races Link assists, he acts to reinforce that monarch or chief’s power. Link does not threaten the political powers of the Zoras, or the Gorons, or the Hylians, instead he serves them and reinforces the authority of the kings and chiefs by working for them and acting on their behalf. However in the case of the Gerudos as we have seen it is necessary for Link to intervene and destroy their political systems and traditions, which are seen as uniquely different and dangerous. There is something a bit hypocritical about the celebration of Link though to my mind. Nabooru, the Spirit Sage criticises Ganondorf, claiming ‘he stole from women and children, and he even killed people’. Surely Link would never do those things? I mean, he walks into people’s houses without asking and breaks their pots and steals their hard-earned rupees all the time. And he did stab Ganondorf’s mutated body in the head at the end of the game. But it’s OK isn’t it? I mean come on, Ganondorf was a baddie after all.
This is an interesting discussion. I always thought Ganondorf’s symbol resembled Islamic symbols. I also didn’t realise there were more suggestions of a link between Middle Eastern culture through the Gossip stones and the character’s speech.
Some of the points sound like the game depicting Ganondorf as a villain (like taking over Hyrule and Link needing to defeat him). Does the Gerudo who gives you the membership card wear a face veil? The Gerudo chief in Majora’s Mask is female and does not wear a face veil, so it seems like the game makers correct those two stereotypes.
Yes, I agree, Ganondorf is tricky. As I said, I think some of it is simply out of necessity – there has to be a villain. You’re right, there is the woman who gives your membership who doesn’t wear a veil. And in Majora’s Mask, there is also a chief or leader who doesn’t either, but her name is Aveil, so… 😛
Majora’s Mask messes around with all of Ocarina’s “races” so that it’s a lot tougher to read, and I think it’s better that way – or less controversial, at least. Since MM, the Gerudos have pretty much disappeared, and I imagine it’s to avoid this sort of thing. I wrote a bit about it in my other post on the Fire Temple music, but my opinion is that if you can accomplish the same result (i.e. cool fantasy races) without alienating a large group of prospective customers then it’s best to take the non-offensive route. It’s clear that the Gerudos are explicitly based on Arabs, and Gorons to Africans, but why did Nintendo feel it necessary to make those links so obvious?
Hah, to be honest I’ve never made the link between Gorons and Africa. For me for something to sound/look African in general it’d have to be lotsa more colorful than the dull brown of Goron’s Village. I don’t get what Darunia calling Link “brother” has do to with Africa, and the beats and drums are amazing but they don’t sound very “African” for me.
This was a good article, anyway.
Thanks for your comment. it’s interesting that you didn’t have the same sense with the Gorons. These things are all subjective. When I was kid and I made the connection between the Gorons and Africa there was a lot of cultural stuff I’d picked up that helped create the link in my head. One example that comes to mind is this TV advert: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYj5o4kQsXs. And, even though I can’t remember any other specific examples, I’m sure there’s plenty more similar things that impacted me. With stereotypes, people generally just soak them up, without meaning to or even thinking about it. Factually, the Goron thing makes no sense: tribes, drums, dark skin, calling someone “brother”, are not unique to Africa at all. Which Africa am I thinking of here anyway? Egypt, Algeria, South Africa, Uganda…? The more you try and analyse it the less sense it makes. Say or show those things (tribes, drums, dark skin, “brother”) to me though and that connection is there in my head whether I want it or not. It sounds like your upbringing has given you a different way of understanding and imagining “Africa”.
Well…this article is way old. But I just wanted to say that I really enjoyed it. I just have a couple of discussion points… the first being that wasn’t Zelda and all of its series’ games developed by people in Asia? Miyamoto and Toriyama? I’m just specifying that because I got the impression that this article was directed towards stereotypes that White Europeans hold when, in fact, we are just consuming that product. And it’s based in…I want to say Japan, but I’m not completely positive. I don’t know that this article is necessarily finger-pointing (I actually agree with a majority of what you wrote), but I don’t think the inherent racism in the US or any European country can be faulted for the content of the game, since the games are usually first released in Japan. Again, I don’t know for sure if you intended for the article to come off that way, but that was my impression.
And while I think most of your points are dead-on with respect to the fact that there are Arabic undertones (and overtones) in the Gerudo, (I was actually surprised about some of the Gossip Stones, I must not have spoken to all of them, but very telling indeed) I also think it is important to point out that a lot of the inspiration for the Gerudo is credited to the Amazons, which is Greek mythology. All-female warrior race that can ride horses like the wind and are excellent archers? Women that have no use for men except sex and slavery/imprisonment? That’s all based on the Amazons. So while I see what you’re saying, I just want to point out that not ALL of it is based in Arabic stereotypes. Greek myth also played a part there, and honestly, I felt that that part was even more overt, but honestly that could be because Greek mythology has always been a point of fascination for me. Anyway, I really did think this was a terrific article, very well-written and WAY better than that lamentable Salon article you referred to in the beginning.
I agree with Rishlass’s points about the Greek/Amazon inspiration. Not to mention, their goddess provokes Hindu imagery… AND their symbol (the original one has been discarded for over 20 years now, so I’m not sure why people refer to it as if it’s still canon) is said to represent the back of a king cobra’s head, a snake native to India.
One thing I’d like to add is that yes, the Gossip Stones are considered pretty accurate, but it’s important to note where that information came from. The Gossip Stones were made by the Sheikah, who are a race which is strongly allied with the Royal Family (and by extension all Hylians and their allies). The Gossip Stones have some pretty nasty things to say about the Gerudo… BUT when we actually meet them face-to-face, the vast majority of them don’t behave in the way other sources would have us believe. The worst they do is imprison you, for TRESSPASSING, which is justified since entering the fortress by jumping over a broken bridge is a pretty deliberate feat. They never steal anything from you, and despite the popular belief they do not make sexual advances on Link or the Carpenters (remember that they trespassed into the fortress, they weren’t snatched from their homes or anywhere else). They openly accept Link into their culture upon proving himself worthy, going as far as allowing him passage to their sacred temple. Almost none of the Gerudo mention Ganondorf at all, and they are seen celebrating with the rest of Hyrule in Lon Lon Ranch at the end of the game. Personally, I take the Gossip Stone messages with a grain of salt, since their creators are inherently prejudiced against anyone not allied with them or the Hylians. It’s important the factor in the actions ACTUALLY witnessed in the game, rather than relying on claims, when analysing a race/culture.
The difference between OoT and the other works mentioned is that the two works are based in real life, and claim to represent a real life culture(s), OoT is/does not. It is a fictional setting which draws inspiration from a number of sources, but the in-game context affects the implications of each race’s characteristics. Assuming that the Gerudo wearing belly dancer-like attire is sexualising them plays into the assumption that a woman’s clothes indicate her sexuality/morality, which of course is not true. As I mentioned before, none of the Gerudo are sexual towards Link (except for Nabooru, but her comments are arguably just compliments and nothing more suggestive). It’s important to remember that they live in the desert, a hot and formidable environment. Their attire helps to regulate their body temperature while allowing them the freedom of movement to undergo any needed tasks. They have no need for bulky armour because their weapons have considerable reach, allowing them to keep opponents at bay. It’s also worth noting that the attire of the Gerudo does not display cleavage or any other erogenous zone, unlike many belly dancer costumes. And Ganondorf shows no interest in the Gerudo, and basically ignores them for the entire game, hardly making them his “harem”.
And also, Link does not mess with the Gerudo’s hierarchy. Ganondorf had basically deserted them in favour of being a world dictator, and as I’ve mentioned before they don’t seem to care all that much about him, despite what is claimed elsewhere. Link doesn’t compromise Nabooru’s position, or that of her second-in-command who is in charge of the fortress. Also, while Link does seem to do a lot of “saving” as the classic white boy paragon trope, it’s important to realise that he has a LOT of help from the other races. If it wasn’t for Zelda and the Sages, he wouldn’t have been able to enter Ganon’s Castle, let alone defeat him (note that even after Link deals the finishing blow, Ganon is still thrashing about until the Seven Sages lock him in the Evil Realm). And of course, we cannot forget Navi, a tiny fairy, who provides him with all the monster-related information he needs throughout his journey. Goron Link, the Gerudo, King Zora, Malon, Talon, Mido and Dampè are all characters which Link needs to work with in order to even progress to new areas. Without this interracial cast of supporting characters, Link would be nothing more than a simple swordsman. Link saves everyone yes, BUT in turn everyone helps him, so it’s not a one-sided deal. It’s in his name – Link helps to unite Hyrule against a green-skinned usurper (he’s not tanned, further differentiating him from the Gerudo).
Just wanted to say this really helped me with a college paper. Thanks, shout out from Brazil.
interesting stuff here. i enjoyed the info. also why is ganon green tho. weird skin color choice.
yeah hes meant to be special being the king and reincarnation of demise. but still. anyways…
but oh ya geurudo girls always gave the arab.islam vibe.!! i liked the designs but felt the over
sized noses was a bit much. lmaoo. oh nintendo.
very good read here. i agree with. ya then the desert theme and all that. but what seals the deal
is in fact the islamic symbols was in OOT. before removal.and the islamic prayer chant in fire temple!!
clearly nintendo wasnt that ignorant of that??! the sample cleary shouts allah. how can anyone not
know that isnt islam related. i dont want to believe koji was that much a idiot. but i believe some at
nintendo wanted that representation there…
before the retcons. before the higher ups or whatever told them it can cause controversy and drama.
so they changed it. but glad it all got removed later on versions of OOT and geurudo got their own
special symbol like everyone else. and kinda redeemed themselves in later games. I like to keep
real world and religion outta my video game experience.
ya early classic zelda had heavy christian tones as well tho. lol. we come along way…